Following their military successes against the Persians in , the Ottomans turned their attention to punishing and controlling the Syrian rebels, Fakhr al-Din at their head. In , Kutshuk Pasha was appointed governor of Damascus with the express task of eliminating the Druze emir. He was brought to Istanbul in chains and decapitated on 13 April For that purpose, he encouraged Christian peasants, mainly Maronite, to emigrate from the settled northern parts of Mount Lebanon especially in Kisrawan to the Druze-controlled regions, where they engaged in silk cultivation and other agricultural and artisanal occupations considered unworthy by the majority of the Druze.
Alhough Sidon remained his capital, Fakhr al-Din selected Beirut as a winter residence, enlarged its port and built a castle and a fort in it.
The emir was a silk merchant in his own right. In one instance in we are told that he sent the Maronite Ibrahim al-Haqallani to Florence with 45 bales of silk. He offered one bale to Cardinal de Medici and sold the remaining 44; the proceeds were deposited in the Monte de Pieta bank in the names of Fakhr al-Din and his three sons.
Fakhr al-Din was succeeded by his nephew Mulhim bin Yunus bin Qurqumaz —58 , who was appointed by the Ottomans to rule the five nahiya s of the Shouf, in addition to the Gharb, the Jurd, the Matn and Kisrawan. His reign lasted for 20 years. This time it was the military reversal on the Hungarian front —99 that prompted him to take up arms.
During the early periods of Shihab rule — Mount Lebanon was marginalised and the Ottoman Pashas of Sidon, Acre and Damascus exercised direct control over the area, playing Shihabi factions competing for power against each other. Of humble origins, Bashir Shihab began his political life at the court of his cousin Yusuf in Dayr al-Qamar, but soon married Princess Shams, the rich widow of a distant cousin from Hasbaya, and stood as a candidate for the Emirate. Five young Abu Nakads were killed and their house in Dayr al-Qamar looted and burnt.
Girgis Baz was close to the Maronite patriarch Tiyan and played a major role in the rise of Christian influence in the Emirate. Furthermore, the authority exercised by Baz and Bashir Jumblatt on their respective communities prefigured the emergence of sectarian leaderships, Maronite and Druze, at the expense of the multi-communitarian Qaysi—Yamani factionalism. Thus, the Maronites were for a time excluded from the post of mudabbir to the emir which was held by a Catholic Christian, while real power shifted to the temporary alliance of the two Bashirs: Bashir Shihab and Bashir Jumblatt.
The revolt of —21 signalled the introduction of the commoners into the political life of the Emirate and constituted the first challenge to the old modes of political allegiances and alliances. It was opposed by the majority of the Druze and Christian manasib , who, though opposed to Bashir II, refused to participate in the revolt under the leadership of Christian commoners. The latter were led by wakils , elected delegates of the villages, who were held accountable by the villagers and could be recalled by them.
Upon his return, he ensured the defection of a number of sheikhs and convinced the rebels of the Shouf and the Matn to lay down their arms in return for rich merchants paying their tax dues in their place. Bashir Jumblatt rallied to the help of the Shihab emir and their joint forces marched upon the rebels. They engaged in a heroic resistance as they retreated to Lihfid, in the Jbeil highlands, where they led their final battle.
Their rupture, in , constituted a decisive turning point in the history of the Emirate and a temporary victory for the centralising policy of Bashir Shihab, finally overcoming the last powerful Druze lord. Jumblatt opposed him in the name of Muslim Ottoman identity and inticed the Ottomans against him as a Christian ruler holding power in the Muslim empire. The regional context of this confrontation was a power struggle between the Ottoman walis of Damascus and Acre: Jumblatt rallied Damascus to his side, while Shihab remained committed to his alliance with Acre.
Finally, Shihab had the wali of that city lure Jumblatt to Acre where he was arrested and decapitated. Of the twelve seigneurial domains in the southern districts, only two remained in the hands of Druze lords. The rest were taken over by Bashir and distributed among his relatives. On the other hand, Bashir drew closer to the Maronite Church, already an impressive economic, social and cultural institution under its new patriarch, Yusuf Hubaysh — He asked for Syria but was offered Crete; he sent his army, commanded by his son Ibrahim, to take Syria.
http://front.parohod.biz/stone-arabia-a-novel.php Reluctant at first, Bashir nevertheless put his armed men in the service of the Egyptians in their battles to occupy Tyre, Sidon, Beirut, Tripoli and finally Damascus, as the whole of Syria fell to Egyptian rule. In Syria, Ibrahim Pasha followed the policies his father had drawn up for Egypt. He strengthened the administration, tried to fight corruption, set up representative councils in towns and cities, treated Christians and Muslims equally and encouraged industry and international trade.
Egyptian rule was contested from the beginning by the Druze manasib. To counter it, Ibrahim Pasha distributed arms to the Christians and asked Bashir to send his son Khalil to lead 4, armed Christians to fight the rebellion. It was the first time that the inhabitants of the Lebanese territories confronted each other on a sectarian basis. However, Ibrahim Pasha alienated wider sectors of the population with his exorbitant taxes, forced labour and military conscription.
Revolts against him broke out in Palestine, Tripoli and northern Syria. Afraid that the Christians would be encouraged to join the Druze and Muslims in revolt against Egyptian rule, Ibrahim Pasha asked Bashir to disarm the Christians. That put them on the trail of revolt. The inhabitants of Dayr al-Qamar were summoned to hand over their arms; they refused and rebelled, both Christians and Druze, under the leadership of their Abu Nakad lords.
This last demand was directly aimed at the authority of the Druze manasib and contributed to alienating many of them from the revolt. Patriarch Hubaysh blessed the rebellion two months after its inception as its first wave was defeated by the forces of Bashir and the Egyptian pasha. The second phase was launched in September in support of the foreign military intervention of mid-July.
Beirut was bombarded by Ottoman warships and Ottoman, British and Austrian sea-borne troops landed in Juniyeh, signalling the end of Egyptian rule in Syria. Paradoxically, the Christians, the great beneficiaries of the Emirate, had nevertheless contributed to its downfall. The Emirate did not outlast Bashir II for long. Returning from exile, the Druze sheikhs tried to. This action might not be possible to undo.
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This is the second updated edition of the first comprehensive history of Lebanon in the modern period. Written by a leading Lebanese scholar, and based on previ . A History of Modern Lebanon 2nd Edition. The top history books of last year picked by Amazon Book Review Editor, Chris Schluep. Fawwaz Traboulsi is Associate Professor teaching history and politics at the Lebanese American University in Beirut.
Create a List. Summary This is the first history of Lebanon from the Ottoman Empire to the modern period. Read on the Scribd mobile app Download the free Scribd mobile app to read anytime, anywhere.
Modern Lebanon 2. The Mutasarrifiya 3.
The wilayet of Beirut 4. Greater Lebanon in the partition of Syria, 5.
Beirut in the civil war, —76 6. Acknowledgements Many have contributed to making this work possible. Arab proverb Lebanon as a polity begins with the Emirate of Mount Lebanon, constituted in the late sixteenth century as an autonomous region inside the Ottoman Empire. Start your free 30 days. Page 1 of 1. Close Dialog Are you sure? Also remove everything in this list from your library. He is a seasoned Lebanese political activist and partisan of the now-disbanded Organization of Communist Activity. Accordingly, a number of accounts in his book come from a person who was well-situated to learn about them firsthand.
Unlike the description of this book, it is not the only work on Lebanese history in the past forty years. However, the book is certainly the best recommended for first-time readers who have no or minimum background information on the subject. Without going into great detail, the author assembles an enormous amount of information and presents it in this enjoyable read whose language was shaped by a talented Marlin Dick, one of the best Western journalists based in Lebanon.
For those who are familiar with other literature on the subject, this book brings together several themes drawn from Kamal Salibi's A House of Many Mansions, Samir Kassir's A History of Beirut as well as primary sources.
Traboulsi deals well with archival material and other primary sources and conducts excellent research. A History of Modern Lebanon as opposed to Salibi's A Modern History of Lebanon , fixes the starting date of the state of Lebanon at the sixteenth century unlike other books that go into painstaking detail to narrate the history of this nation since ancient times.
From then on, Traboulsi ascends chronologically and his story reaches the Independence Intifada of At times, readers might feel that the author delves into irrelevant accounts. But overall, the book is coherent and offers substantiated arguments. From Amazon A great book from a great professor..
Overview Readers reviews 3 Product Details. This is the first comprehensive history of Lebanon in the modern period.